In centrifugal pump technology, the pump system, or simply the system, encompasses the space through which the fluid handled flows, excluding the pump itself. A differentiation is made in the system between the suction and the discharge side, where each side is equipped with an appropriate tank and piping including all requisite valves.
The suction side of the system is situated between the system's inlet cross-section (Ae) and the pump's inlet cross-section (As); the discharge side is located between the pump’s outlet cross-section (Ad) and the system's outlet cross-section (Aa), which has to be specifically defined. See Fig. 2 Head
The system's energy consumers include accumulators, coolers, condensers, high-level distributing tanks, all of which account for a significant proportion of energy consumed, but also piping as well as fittings and valves.