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The term earthing covers all earthing equipment and measures and how they are used to connect an electrically conductive part, such as the metal housing of electrical or electronic devices and equipment, to the earth.

Proper earthing ensures that potential differences between a device and the earth cannot occur in the event of a short circuit, overvoltage, or lightning strike, and protects both persons and equipment. There are two types of earthing: protective earthing and functional earthing.